A Guide to On-line Conductivity Measurement: Theory and Practice

     Electrical conductivity has been measured for more than 100 years and it is still an important and widely used analytical parameter today. The high reliability, sensitivity, fast response, and relatively low cost of the equipment make conductivity a valuable, easy-to-use tool for quality control. In some applications, the same measurement is made as resistivity which is the inverse of conductivity and with reciprocal units.

     Electrical conductivity is a non-specific sum parameter, responding to all dissolved ionic materials (salts, acids, bases, and some organic substances) in solution. Conductivity is unable to differentiate the kinds of ions. The measurement is proportional to the combined effect of all ions in the sample. Therefore, it is an important tool for monitoring and surveillance of a wide range of different types of water (pure water, drinking water, natural water, process water, etc.) and other solvents. It is also used to determine the concentrations of conductive chemicals.

     This guide provides the basics for a good understanding of conductivity and resistivity measurement. Important factors that influence the measurement and possible sources of error are discussed. Both theoretical and practical aspects are covered to enable reliable calibration and measurement in various applications.

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